The Bluecoats: Patriots Past and Present

Patriots’ Day offers us a chance to reflect on heroism, on sacrifices large and small, those historic and contemporary, and those made by Revolutionary soldiers and those by star football players. I am of course thinking of our own New England Patriots. One of their former stars showed kindness and concern for me in a time of great need last year, and I want to take a moment to tell you about how I plan to “pay it forward” here at AAS.

As bad as it looks, we were luckily fine.

As bad as it looks, we were luckily fine.

On a lovely spring afternoon last May, I found myself in Providence, Rhode Island. One of AAS’s brilliant scholars had just given a talk at Brown University. The event had been a success, and the speaker and I were merrily making our way along 95 en route to a dinner party in Central Falls to celebrate. As we turned off the highway, a car, going about 90mph, hit us from behind. I will spare the details, except to say that ultimately, we were fine—after the car spun around a few times, the driver fled from the scene, and we coped with our shock —we really were fine.

I can only imagine how the accident must have looked to those driving by. A few good Samaritans stopped to see if we were alright, and a few even tried to track down the driver who had fled the scene. In addition to some lovely women who hugged me and told me that everything was okay, There was a hulking figure who also offered us reassurances. He brought me a bottle of water, and when the ambulance arrived and these good people started to disperse, he placed a large jacket around my shaking shoulders. I looked up at him and thanked him, but told him that surely, I could not take his coat. He responded with a sideways smile, “That’s alright, honey. I’ve got plenty more where that came from.”

I thanked him again, and he was on his way. Before I even had a chance to look at the jacket, the lady next to me said, “You know who that is right?” I looked at her in my befuddled state, and she responded, “That’s Joe Andruzzi!  You know, THE PATRIOT!” I looked down and realized that I was covered in an oversized team warm-up jacket.

Patriots_0002 (2)

The jacket Joe Andruzzi gave me on the scene, which is now being raffled off!

Though far too big for me to wear, this jacket has been a constant reminder of a random act of kindness bestowed on me by a complete stranger. A week or so after the incident, I wrote a letter and made a modest donation to the Joe Andruzzi Foundation, recounting the story and thanking Andruzzi profusely for his generosity and benevolence that afternoon. I am now ready to pass this jacket—and all the heroism is symbolizes—on, and I can’t think of any better way to do so than at our Adopt-a-Book silent auction.

On May 5, 2015, AAS will be holding its 8th Annual Adopt-a-Book evening in Antiquarian Hall in Worcester.  At this popular event we invite our guests to come see some recent acquisitions, help us with our fundraising efforts by “adopting” a book, print, newspaper or manuscript, chat with curators and AAS members, and hear about current research activities going on at the library.  For the past several years the Society has also held a raffle and a silent auction during the Adopt-a-Book evening to help raise funds for library acquisitions of historic material. The raffle has included modern books and AAS swag (tote bags, holiday cards, baseball caps).  The silent auction has featured framed reproductions based on our print and map collections and the retired reading room chairs from ca. 1912.  And this year, we are happy to offer Joe Andruzzi’s Patriots jacket at the silent auction. Please come and bid on it: make this Patriot’s jacket become part of another great patriot cause: preserving the nation’s history.

Congressman and Librarians Pay Visit to AAS for National Library Week

The group visits the conservation lab on their tour of AAS.

The group visits the conservation lab on their tour of AAS.

Although many think of public libraries when they hear National Library Week, we couldn’t resist celebrating our special collections library as well! Through social media we’ve made sure there have been plenty of pictures of old books and #shelfies, as usual, and our annual Adopt-a-Book event, which raises money for acquisitions, also launched this week. But our real celebrations took place last week, when Congressman Jim McGovern and a group of local public school librarians from Leicester, Bartlett, and Grafton came for a visit to the Society.

Viewing materials in the Council Room.

Viewing materials in the Council Room.

While here, the congressman and librarians took a tour of the library led by President Ellen Dunlap and then explored some of our treasures in the Council Room. These items included Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre, an issue of the Cherokee Phoenix, the diary of Caroline Barrett White describing the Anthony Burns fugitive slave case in Boston in 1854, and a series of letters written between Charles Slack, Frederick Douglass, and Henry David Thoreau about a speaking engagement. These are all items that we use in our workshops with K-12 teachers and we discussed the ways that we use these materials to teach critical thinking skills and enhance the educational experiences of teachers and their students.  Afterwards, we held a great discussion about the importance of libraries, both public and private, and ways that AAS could possibly partner with the school librarians.

“The American Antiquarian Society is a national treasure located right in our backyard. l am so happy that [the librarians] could join me today to celebrate National Library Week and to learn more about the educational materials AAS uses to educate K-12 groups when they come through the library, or use the materials online,” said U.S. Rep. McGovern.

We at AAS, always looking for new ways to connect with the community, were happy to host this tour and hope that we will see all of them back soon!

L to R: Marie Lamoureux, AAS Collections Manager; James David Moran, AAS Director of Outreach; U.S. Representative Jim McGovern; Ellen S. Dunlap, AAS President; Carrie Grimshaw, Leicester High School; Stephanie Sanborn, Bartlett Jr/Sr High School; Patricia Keller, Grafton High School; Kayla Hopper, AAS Outreach Coordinator

L to R: Marie Lamoureux, AAS Collections Manager; James David Moran, AAS Director of Outreach; U.S. Representative Jim McGovern; Ellen S. Dunlap, AAS President; Carrie Grimshaw, Leicester High School; Stephanie Sanborn, Bartlett Jr/Sr High School; Patricia Keller, Grafton High School; Kayla Hopper, AAS Outreach Coordinator

Now launched: Adopt-a-Book 2015!

This year the American Antiquarian Society will be holding its 8th annual Adopt-a-Book event on Tuesday, May 5, from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m.  This fundraising event supports the library’s continued acquisitions of historic material and has been very successful in the past, with over $100,000 raised to date. The funds help curators buy more books, pamphlets, prints, newspapers, and manuscripts.  On May 5, guests will have the opportunity to view all kinds of material recently acquired by AAS, including a poultry advice book, a poster for a dog show and a newspaper published in Nome, Alaska.  You can adopt in your name or in memory/in honor of a special person (or both, with multiple adoptions!). The event has become so popular with our members, fellows, local supporters, and staff, that many previous participants have already been asking the curators in advance for hints about the type of material that will be made available for adoption this year!  Everyone has been waiting for the catalog.

And here it is! Today, we launch the 2015 Adopt-a-Book event with the online catalog, which will remain active through May (or until everything is adopted).  Participants who wish to pre-adopt can do so now, direct from the digital catalog (and as an added incentive, entrance to the May 5 event is FREE if you pre-adopt from the online catalog, otherwise $10).  So click on over and have a look at the 120 objects the curators have selected for the online portion of this event.  Don’t worry if it seems like everything is getting snapped up quickly – we are always gratified by the enthusiasm our supporters show.  And, the curators have already selected additional, exclusive, material that will only be up for adoption in person at the event on May 5.

To further tempt you, here are selections in the online catalog from each of the five curatorial departments:

Ocean RoversThe Ocean Rovers. Munro’s Ten Cent Novels, No. 12. New York: George Munro & Co., 1864. 
Adopt me for $50

Dime Novels were cheap thrills (costing, you guessed it, 10 cents!). Formulaic adventure stories issued in numbered series, they enjoyed an enormous readership from the last third of the 19th century into the early 20th century. These lurid pot-boilers reveled in all forms of criminality and outlaw behavior. They were often set in Western locales populated with outlaws and bandits; or on the sea with brigands, buccaneers and privateers; or on city streets teaming with scenes of seduction, criminal intent, and sometime even detective or police work.

Up StreamRichard Andre, Up Stream: A Journey from the Present to the Past. New York: Scribner & Welford, ca. 1877.
Adopt me for $100

This fantastical picture book was both penned and illustrated by Englishman William Roger Snow (1834-1907), who used the pseudonym “Richard Andre.” The poem is about two boys who pause from their boating adventure to dream about the past. The lively pictures match the poetry to note the first steamed potato, the triumphant ride of Joan of Arc, the winsome Helen of Troy, and even the curly tusked mastodons!


drinking buddiesThree Men Drinking Beer, ca. 1875.
Adopt me for $75

Photographs of people eating and drinking in the nineteenth century are uncommon. This tintype shows three gents in suit coats seated around a small table in a photographer’s studio drinking beer out of glass mugs. One man’s hat is on the floor and the central figure is smoking.


Souvenir herbariumSouvenir Herbarium of Melinda E. Field, 1849-1855. 
Adopt me for $200

Kept by Melinda E. Field from 1849-1855, this souvenir herbarium contains specimens from Pennsylvania, New York, and Connecticut. The album contains 12 botanicals, mostly leaves, sewn neatly into the pages and labeled with the locations and dates they were found. A few loose specimens are found in other pages, having never been stitched down. The album features “Holly from Laurel Hill, Cemetery, Philadelphia,” leaves “From the Charter Oak, Hartford, Conn,” and “From a willow tree planted by myself at Fieldsborough.”

The Pioneer or CA Monthly MagPioneer: or California Monthly Magazine (San Francisco, California) Oct. 1854.
Adopt me for $75

The Pioneer was the first purely literary magazine of California. It began January 1854 by Ferdinand C. Ewer who modeled the magazine on the New York literary periodicals, The Knickerbocker. It lasted about two years.



We are grateful to American Printing for their generous donation of the costs of printing our invitations for this event.

“A week unparalleled in the annals of this war”: Joy and Sorrow in April 1865

Surrender of Lee_Curr-Ives

“Surrender of Genl. Lee, at Appomattox C.H. Va. April 9th 1865″ by Currier and Ives, 1865.

“Hurrah! Hurrah! ‘Sound the loud Timbrel o’er Egypt’s dark sea’ – Early this morning our ears were greeted with the sound of bells ringing a joyous peal – & a paper sent home by Frank announced the glad tidings that Gen. Lee had surrendered with his whole Army to Gen. Grant!” Only a day after the historic gentlemen’s surrender at Appomattox on April 9, 1865, the news had reached Boston and, according to Caroline Barrett White, an upper-middle-class woman from Brookline, the “city has been given up to rejoicings all day & this evening there was to have been a great illumination—with music fireworks & such other demonstrations as are usual in a time like this.”

Like so many that day, White was eager to express her joy at the end of the most devastating war to take place on American soil. She had taken an active interest in the antislavery movement since the mid-1850s and kept a careful record of war news, government policy decisions, and her patriotic activities during the course of the conflict. (The latter consisted of everything from sewing shirts and socks for the soldiers to purchasing “some patriotic streamers” and “making some decorations of the national colors” to hang in her house.)

After four long years of worry and heartache, it’s no surprise that her victorious entry on April 10 reads as an incoherent jumble of emotions, ranging from utter joy that the war is over to a religious vindication of the evils of slavery to disappointment that she’s unable to join in the celebrations taking place just a few miles away in Boston. This last emotional swing is indicative of a motif that crops up throughout her war year entries: despite effusions of patriotic fervor and restlessness, this private woman remained mostly just that – private.

We don't know which newspaper Frank sent to Caroline, but this April 10 issue of the Boston Herald is one possibility.

We don’t know which newspaper Frank sent to Caroline, but this April 10 issue of the Boston Herald is one possibility.

Restrained by the expectations of the day—and her own belief in the correctness of those expectations (she was anti-women’s suffrage in later years)—it was in the privacy of her own home, and more specifically her diary, that she allowed herself the full expression of her political self. It is through a newspaper sent home by her husband, Frank, who is probably in the city amongst the revelry, that she learns of Appomattox. And while she allows herself a brief moment of frustration at the hindrances of her sex, she quickly rallies to focus on the monumental accomplishment of the day:

The booming of cannon & the pealing of bells, the blazing of fire works at this moment, announce that rain is no conqueror of enthusiasm – I wish I could be near to join in the general jubilation – it is stupid enough to be sitting alone in a quiet room – where only the faint echoes of a city’s burst of joy reach me – Ah!  Well!  I can be grateful to the Lord who has made bare His Arm to save this people.

Ultimately, it is the restoration of the Union and the demolition of slavery that excites White the most. Her “children will have an inheritance greatly to be desired,” for they will now “Let our starry banner wave – from sea to sea and no slave shall look upon its glorious folds – no chains shall clank beneath it – but every where, & to all people, of every color, shall it be the loved emblem of liberty.”

"Funeral car, used at the obsequies of President Lincoln, in Philadelphia, April 22d, 1865" by Jacob Haehnlen Philadelphia, 1865.

“Funeral car, used at the obsequies of President Lincoln, in Philadelphia, April 22d, 1865″ by Jacob Haehnlen, Philadelphia, 1865.

Perhaps one of the most poignant aspects of reading White’s diary in retrospect, however, is the knowledge that her unbridled elation and hope for the future is to be taken away so quickly. With the “thrilling intelligence of the Fall of Petersburg and Richmond” arriving just a week earlier, the news of Lee’s surrender “crowns a week unparalleled in the annals of this war – & I doubt if a parallel could be found in all history.” Little did she know that these unparalleled events were not yet over, and when the next one came it was a devastating blow. “The darkest day I ever remember – This morning the sun rose upon a nation jubilant with victory – but it sets upon one plunged in deepest sorrow,” she wrote just five days later, on April 15. One can hardly blame her for finding the “rapidity with which events crowd upon one another…perfectly bewildering.”

Her entry detailing Lincoln’s death is interesting not just for what it says—much of it recounts the confusion of information about the condition of Secretary of State Seward and his sons, who were also attacked—but also for its physical characteristics. It spans three pages, in stark contrast to her normal entry length of about a fifth of a page, and the entire entry is outlined in a dark, bold pen line, a traditional sign of mourning. The length, emotion, and mourning border she gives to Lincoln’s assassination entry is unique in her diary, even deaths of close family and friends not receiving the same attention. Her grief and anguish is genuine, and there is nothing left for her to do but ask God, whom she had so recently thanked for guiding the country through the abolition of slavery, “When will our cup of punishments be drunk to the dregs?  Merciful Father, help us.”

White's April 15, 1865, entry detailing news of Lincoln's assassination.

White’s April 15, 1865, entry detailing news of Lincoln’s assassination.

So just as Caroline White rejoiced in her Brookline home 150 years ago on another rainy April 10, ignorant of what history had in store for the weary country next, let us also take a moment to remember and reflect.

A full transcription of the entries is available here.

The Acquisitions Table: The Old Violin

The Old Violin. Chromolithographic proof. Covington, Kentucky: Donaldson Art Sign Co., 1887.

513124_0001The Society has been working to build the portion of the print collection which focuses on the dissemination of fine art in the United States, adding engravings and lithographs after famous or popular American paintings. The prints were then sold to the emerging middle class from 1840 to 1890, spreading images across the country. This beautiful chromolithograph was published in Kentucky in 1887 after a trompe l’oeil painting by William Hartnett. According to the National Gallery of Art, which owns the original painting, “The public was fascinated by The Old Violin…People would reach out to touch the violin or try to grasp the envelope to determine if the objects were real or painted. Thanks to a widely distributed chromolithograph, The Old Violin would become an icon of American art.” This copy is actually a proof printing of the chromolithograph, and is unusual in that it has not been trimmed to the margin and retains the series of color bars that guided the printer. The acquisition therefore addresses both our interest in the dissemination of fine art and the Society’s focus on the history of printing processes in America.

Meet AAS Fellow Cole Jones

cole.jones@gmail.comTrenton Cole Jones received his PhD in History from Johns Hopkins University in 2014 and is presently a Hench Post-Dissertation Fellow at the American Antiquarian Society. Cole was just awarded an NEH fellowship at the New York Historical Society for next year and has also been hired as an assistant professor of early American history at Purdue University. While on fellowship at AAS, Cole is revising his dissertation, “‘Deprived of Their Liberty': Enemy Prisoners and the Culture of War in Revolutionary America.” He recently sat down with Past is Present to discuss his project and the challenges of revising a dissertation.

Past is Present: Will you describe your current project for us?

Trenton Cole Jones: Certainly. My book project, which is a revised version of my doctoral dissertation, is entitled Captives of Liberty: Prisoners of War and the Radicalization of the American Revolution. This project investigates how Revolutionary Americans treated their captured enemies. I originally came to this project in 2008 when the treatment, or mistreatment, of prisoners captured during the “War on Terror” was a hot button issue politically. At the time, politicians and pundits delighted in contrasting the treatment of enemy captives under the Bush administration with what they claimed was the humanitarian way of war practiced by our founding fathers during the War for Independence. Prominent historians followed this trend by emphasizing the flagrant prisoner abuses committed by the British armed forces, while largely neglecting the practices of the Revolutionaries. But as I dug deeper into the question, a much more complicated picture emerged. I uncovered a process of radicalization that transformed the conduct of the war and imperiled prisoners on both sides. My project analyzes this process by examining prisoner treatment over the course of the conflict within the context of the contemporary European culture of war. I conclude that the American Revolution was far more violent than scholars have appreciated, and that the experience of the war and its violence played a significant role in the social and political transformations of the Revolutionary era. In short, by examining how the American treatment of enemy prisoners changed over the course of the period, my book positions the war at the forefront of our narratives about the American Revolution.


Past is Present: Which historians have inspired you?

Cole: That is a very difficult question because my intellectual debts are so many. Any young scholar of the American Revolution stands on the shoulders of giants: Bernard Bailyn, Gordon Wood, Gary Nash, Alfred Young, and John Shy to name but a few who have profoundly influenced my thinking. So I will answer the question another way, by pointing to two historians who have most influenced the way I write history. I first encountered Edmund Morgan’s 1975 American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia as an undergraduate. This book, more than any other, inspired me to take up the study of early America. His magisterial narrative recreates the evolving world of colonial Virginia with evocative detail and elegant simplicity. But it is the powerful argument skillfully embedded within his narrative that continues to inspire me, even as more recent works have nuanced and revised his central thesis. Morgan’s ability to seamlessly blend argument and analysis into a compelling, fast-paced, and approachable narrative is a model I strive to emulate, however inadequately.

The other historian is a scholar of Old Regime and Revolutionary France. David Bell’s work on the culture of war in Europe during the age of revolutions, The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It, is an example of the historian’s craft at its finest. Timely, provocative, deeply-researched, and beautifully constructed, The First Total War inspired me to investigate the complex interplay of wartime ideas and actions in my own period of study. While scholars may quibble with its ambitious title, none can deny that Bell has given us the best explanation for how one of the bloodiest wars in human history arose out of the Enlightenment’s quest for peace in perpetuity. Perhaps I am a little biased; David was one of graduate school mentors. Nonetheless, both Bell and Morgan have given me models for the type of historian I aspire to be. While historiographic intervention and rigorous analysis will always be the foundation of professional history writing, our books would be dull stuff indeed if they did not come wrapped in a good story.


Past is Present: What does the fellowship mean to you?

Cole: I consider myself extremely fortunate to hold the Hench Post-Dissertation Fellowship here at the AAS. This fellowship has allowed me to concentrate full-time on my research, writing, and career development. As I revise my dissertation, I have found the AAS’s resources to be immensely helpful. Whenever I need to check a citation or locate the latest monograph in the field, the AAS invariably has a copy in its collections. But my time has not all been spent writing and revising. I have also combed through numerous manuscript collections, making several important finds. I discovered that during the Revolution, Worcester was used as a depot for confining suspected New York loyalists. With a British army ensconced in New York City and another army marching south from Canada in 1777, New York authorities chose to send their suspected loyalists to Worcester for safe-keeping. The New Yorkers promised to reimburse Worcester’s Committee of Safety for the prisoners’ expenses, but years later the debt had still not been settled. Documents like these shed light on just how disorganized and decentralized prisoner administration was during the conflict, as well as driving home the fact that the War for Independence was also a civil war.


Past is Present: What would be your ideal find here at AAS?

Cole: As for my ideal find, I still dream of coming across a detailed roster of prisoners held in one of the main American prison camps, such as the Rutland camp located near Worcester. It would make my life much easier if I had good information on the identities of the prisoners held in these camps and some information about the length of their captivity and their rates of mortality and morbidity. The Revolutionaries were pretty bad at keeping these types of records, and I have only found a few isolated rosters for prisons in Pennsylvania. I have had to rely on British records to fill in the blanks. These documents, however, are somewhat unreliable as the administrators who compiled the lists were operating from second-hand information. Thus they might suggest a soldier was in American custody when he had in fact deserted or died. Nonetheless, these records do give us some idea of the total number of prisoners taken by the Americans during the eight-year war: over sixteen thousand men.

Although the research opportunities were what originally attracted me to this fellowship, I have found the intellectual community here at the AAS to be the most fulfilling and stimulating part of my fellowship so far. The library’s staff is deeply invested in the scholarly study of early America and all have been unflaggingly helpful and encouraging. The plethora of historians, literary scholars, artists and art historians, and poets and playwrights who have come through the fellowship program since I arrived have all contributed significantly to my thinking about my research project and early America in general. The formal fellows’ seminar has been immensely productive, but I have found some of the most invigorating discussions have occurred while making dinner or sipping coffee in the morning. It has been a privilege and a delight to get to know so many scholars with such diverse interests.

As a junior scholar, I have found the most rewarding aspect of the fellowship to be the mentorship provided by the senior scholars in residence: Steven Bullock, Richard and Claudia Bushman, Sean Moore, Melanie Kiechle, and Carl Keyes. Steve Bullock in particular has really taken me under his wing and has provided me countless hours of guidance, encouragement, and critique. Few postdoctoral fellowships can boast this type of personalized mentorship. I am extremely grateful for the collaboration and camaraderie of my fellow fellows at the AAS.

Read the whole interview here!

Spring Public Programs are here!

2015 Spring Program cover_Page_1We’re finally starting to see some melting and hear some birds singing after this never-ending winter, which also means we’re gearing up for the start of our Spring Public Program series! This series begins with newly published books about Lincoln, set to coincide with sesquitennial of the end of the Civil War and the 150th anniversary of Lincoln’s death this April. It continues with highlights from our NEH fellows, a new look at the religion and philosophy of the Founding Fathers, and concludes with a historical music program culled directly from our archives.

See below for short descriptions, and visit our website for more information. All programs are free and open to the public and take place in Antiquarian Hall at 185 Salisbury St., Worcester. We hope to see you there!

Thursday, April 2, at 7 p.m.
“Lincoln’s Last Speech and the Problem of Reconstruction”
by Louis Masur
Co-sponsored by the Franklin M. Loew Lecture Series at Becker College

Louis P Masur by Nick Lacy(2)On April 11, 1865, Abraham Lincoln delivered what would turn out to be his last speech. Coming only two days after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, the speech confounded expectations; northerners anticipated a victory speech, but instead Lincoln focused on reunion and the challenge of reconstruction. He used the occasion to declare support for limited black suffrage. John Wilkes Booth was in the crowd and declared, “that is the last speech he will ever make.” Three days later, he delivered on his boast. This lecture is based on Louis Masur’s latest book, Lincoln’s Last Speech: Wartime Reconstruction and the Crisis of Reunion.

Thursday, April 9, at 7 p.m.
“Lincoln’s Republicanism as a Way of Life”
by Richard Wightman Fox
Co-sponsored by the Franklin M. Loew Lecture Series at Becker College

FOX photo three by EthingtonLincolns Body_978-0-393-06530-5In this lecture based upon his recently published book, Lincoln’s Body: A Cultural History, Richard Fox will describe how Lincoln’s physical appearance and the way the sixteenth president consciously made himself accessible to the public informed his political views and his concept of equality. Lincoln’s physical appearance has been an important component of our understanding and appreciation of the man both in his own time and in the subsequent years since his assassination. Lincoln’s Body explores how a president ungainly in body and downright “ugly” of aspect came to mean so much to us.

Thursday, April 23, at 7 p.m.
“A Panel of Recent National Endowment for the Humanities Scholarship”
with Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Kyle Volk, and Lisa Wilson

NEH Logo MASTER_082010This panel discussion will feature three National Endowment for the Humanities fellows who were in residence during the 2010-11 academic year and whose research has resulted in recently published books. They are: Elizabeth Maddock Dillon for her work New World Drama: The Performative Commons in the Atlantic World, 1649-1849; Kyle Volk with his book, Moral Minorities and the Making of American Democracy; and Lisa Wilson and her study, A History of Stepfamilies in Early America.

Tuesday, May 12, at 7 p.m.
“Radical Philosophy at the Origin of the American Republic”
by Matthew Stewart

Stewart headshotStewart bookcoverThis presentation will explore the philosophical and religious influences not just on the more famous names, such as Jefferson, Franklin, and Paine, but also some less well-known figures, including Ethan Allen and Thomas Young, the unsung hero of the Boston Tea Party and the Pennsylvania Revolution. Drawing on his recent book, Nature’s God: The Heretical Origins of the American Republic, Stewart will make the case that the unusual philosophical religion that inspired many of America’s revolutionaries was more radical than we now tend to think and at the same time central in the creation of the world’s first modern republic.

Thursday, May 21, at 7 p.m.
“‘Mild Melodious Maze’: Songs and Instrumental Music from Early America (1770-1830)”
with Anne D. M. Harley, voice, Olav Chris Henriksen, guitar, and Na’ama Lion, flute

AnneHarleytrioThis musical program performed on period instruments celebrates some of the over 70,000 musical scores in the Society’s collections of American music. Come hear the heroic spirit in music from the first years of the American nation, the political songs of the Early Republic, shape note and Shaker tunes, popular hits from imported English stage shows, and the strains of the first art music composed on American soil.

The Acquisitions Table: Philadelphia from Girard College

B.F. Smith Jr. after J. W. Hill. Philadelphia from Girard College – 1850. New York: Smith Brothers & Co., ca. 1850.515093_0001

The American Antiquarian Society holds a substantial manuscript archive for the Smith Brothers, a publishing firm located in Maine and New York. Four brothers formed the firm, which specialized in the printing of folio lithographed and engraved city views. The firm was founded in 1846, and the manuscript collection holds several subscription books for the following eight years, when the brothers published almost thirty views. They sometimes worked with prominent artists, or drew the images themselves. This view of Philadelphia was one of a pair and, according to the subscription book, was offered individually or as a set to subscribers in the city. The perspective from Girard College is captivating, showing the sweep of the Schuylkill River, with the city in the distance at the far left.

Spring Almanac now available!

almanac89It’s that time again—the latest issue of the Almanac is now out! This issue features stories from every department at the Society, from curatorial and readers’ services to outreach and digital humanities. Some highlights include:

  • a generous gift to AAS from a local member and former AAS councilor
  • a new digital project featuring Isaiah Thomas’s collection of broadside ballads
  • a publishing project concerning one of our most prized manuscript collections, the Reverend William Bentley diaries
  • a feature on college and K-12 class visits to the Society
  • amazing and rare acquisitions in books and graphic arts

And of course, our usual updates on upcoming programs and seminars are also included. So please take a look and we hope to see you in the reading room soon!


A Paddy’s Day Present: A Database for Mathew Carey Account Books and a Window into the Early American Book Trade

A year ago today, we announced work on a database that would make the extensive financial records of Mathew Carey, a Dublin native who came to Philadelphia in 1784, navigable. One St. Patrick’s Day later, we are happy to announce that this resource now exists. Carey’s records include receipts, bills, memoranda, invoices, bills of lading, and other records of his publishing house—arguably the most influential in the early Republic—and its successors: Carey, Lea, and Company; and Lea and Blanchard. Constructed from three drawers of index cards that were created in the late 1920s, the database contains over 12,000 names, most of which refer to people, but also contain references to ships, firms, and institutions such as schools.  After keying that information into a spreadsheet, members of our assiduous library staff have matched it to the box and folder number where it will appear and added the corresponding URL, so a search for a name in our database will render an account number and a link to GIGI, our digital asset management system. The URL will lead to a handful of images that include a reference to the searched name. A search for “Woodward, William” yields these results:

Slide1 (2)

Clicking on the links provided for Account #7554 and #7555 will then yield the following images in GIGI:

Slide2 (2)

The names will reveal much about Carey’s exchange and distribution networks, but also about the early American book trade more generally. In a letter to Historical Society of Pennsylvania Librarian Thomas Montgomery when AAS acquired the financial records, Clarence Brigham describes the records as including “the accounts of a firm of printers who had dealings all over the country with engravers, binders, publishers and book purchasers” (I wrote about the letter exchange between Brigham and Montgomery in a previous post).

We have spent a lot of time with this Carey data in the last year, and have had to think carefully and critically about how best to serve it to the user. Had we world enough and time, we would have checked every name against the Library of Congress Name Authorities, knowing that although some of the names would not be there, we could disambiguate some, not to mention correct spelling mistakes that have inevitably crept in during transcription. We have cleaned the data for consistency’s sake, as we outline in #2 of the instructions on using the database.

These instructions note that we have eliminated the use of titles, such as “Rev.” or “Cpt.”, in names. We have, however, retained “Mrs” and “Miss” when they were included in the original index because often this is the only way to identify the person as female. There were almost 40 discrete instances of this title used, and surely, some women are included in the data who are not listed with “Mrs” or Miss,” so we expect that those interested in women in the book trade and in business more generally in the early Republic might find this data of use.

These records reflect both Carey’s local dealings in Philadelphia and his international book exchange network. For example, Carey gave money six different times to the “Overseers of the Schools for Black People” for the tuition of Mary Whitesides (below).

Carey for Mary Whitesides tuition

These records might be used to disambiguate members of the transatlantic book trade family the Rices, some of whom emigrated from Dublin. In her Dictionary of the Dublin Book Trade, M Pollard describes this family as “ubiquitous and confusing” (493), and perhaps the 58 entries with the last name of “Rice” will help to clarify which members of the family were in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Dublin when.

The database of course only works if one has a name to search for, but we also encourage users to browse the names in the database. On the database site, we have included the spreadsheets for the complete list of names in an xlsm file that can be easily downloaded. This spreadsheet will not only enable browsing, but please also feel free to use that data for independent projects. We would love to know how it is used, so please contact me, should you find new and innovative ways to use what we hope will prove an invaluable resource for understanding the economies and exchanges at work in the early American book trade.

Indestructible! How Children’s Books Have Survived the Centuries

lydiaI am currently in the throes of infancy with a nine-month-old who, by any evaluation of her current book-handling technique, is not destined to become a rare book librarian. She literally attacks the written word without mercy or proper treatment. Here she is “reading” her copy of Plip-Plop Pond, created by a company called Indestructibles. This line of books offers texts that are water-proof, tear-resistant and baby durable; they also wash well and are nontoxic. As impressed as I am with these titles, I’ve found myself thinking, “Surely the plight of parents wishing to introduce their babies to the joy of books without them being eaten is one shared across centuries?” Plip-Plop Pond, which is printed on some form of strong synthetic material, made me question the ways publishers created items for indifferent tiny hands in the nineteenth-century and wonder if the Society had any representatives.

Many juvenile texts were literally loved to pieces; unsurprisingly one will find countless examples of mutilated copies in any children’s literature archive. In some instances, an uncomplicated binding helped insure a book wasn’t instantly destroyed. In the children’s literature collection at AAS are thousands of juvenile literature pamphlets and limp bindings. Others are held together with a simple-stitch binding. Another strategy was to avoid sewn or glued text blocks altogether, which was easy prey for small hands.

Betsey Brooks full cover
Some attempts were made to reinforce children’s books with a cover—many times these were fashioned from other loose, illustrated papers. AAS has a collection of uncataloged copybook covers, such as the hand-sewn example above from July 1806 belonging to one Betsey Brooks. It is illustrated with woodcuts of an elephant, lion, and eagle. While not permanent, these covers offered a unique way of preserving the text within. Though it was hardly indestructible, it was nevertheless protected. And obviously Brooks was interested in taking care of it, as it shows evidence of quite a bit of hand-stitching and repairs!

The best paper is made using natural materials. Paper from rags (used up until the second half of the nineteenth century) is strong and lasts a long time, whereas paper from wood pulp yellows quickly, disintegrates, and certainly tears easily. Texts created before the introduction wood pulp paper have their own insurance of survival (as they likely had some form of rag-content); those printed after had to be creative. Just as printing on rag-paper was falling out of use, printing on textile (or cloth printing) was utilized by some publishers to render them “indestructible.” Unlike other children’s books which were variable in their quality of printing, these “indestructible books” were the opposite—created with preservation in mind.

Indestructible primerPrinters of these books would issue them without covers or a text block. Some were printed on a sheet of paper and folded/stitched into a single gathering, which made the perfect format for sharing. Indestructibles were arguably a form of toy books—a genre which later used color as a main selling-point, and were standardized in their format and size to be competitive in the children’s book market.

The term “indestructible” was used to describe texts and designate a series as early as the 1850s. No doubt some children saw something incapable of destruction as a challenge. But handling these books now, it is obvious why they have survived with such little wear. A speller and early reading book, The Indestructible Primer (right), was illustrated with forty pictures on a limp binding; published in Boston by Ticknor, Reed, and Fields in 1852, this item is the Society’s earliest example with “indestructible” in the title. As an example of an alphabet book, The Indestructible Primer was designed to teach the letters and sounds to young children, as well as simple words, rhyming, and foundations of reading. The page featured here shows that wood-engraved illustrations were also used to keep readers attentive (and provide a visual reference). Some of them were even hand-colored. The item is small in size (measuring 13 x 18 cm), has only fifteen pages and a simple stitch binding, and as the advertisement on page four states, it was “printed on strong cloth, expressly prepared.”

Cock RobinIndestructibles were more than books of instruction, spelling, or the alphabet; some were stories and nursery rhymes. As important as the indestructible primer was to allow generation after generation to tear into their books, it lacked in color and full-page illustration. Instructional books such as primers were naturally followed-up with pleasure books. The book The Courtship and Wedding of Cock Robin and Jenny Wren (with an account of the doleful death of Cock Robin) was part of an indestructible line for children (see above). Published between 1856 and 1859 and printed by Joseph Barton, the book adds to the developing form by printing in color with well-known artists and illustrators, such as British-born Harrison Weir (1824-1906) who specialized in animal drawings and illustrated a large number of children’s books.

The Three Bears

Another text published by Sheldon & Co. between 1859 and 1861 was The Three Bears (also known as Goldilocks and the Three Bears). Sheldon & Co. called this series “Indestructible pleasure books” (and AAS has eight from this series!). The text was printed on cloth, also illustrated by Harrison Weir, and engraved by W.G. Mason and Greenaway & Wright. On the inside of the cover is a series list, indicating that the texts were printed in oil colors on linen.

Noah's Ark

No review of children’s printing would be complete without mention of the McLoughlin Brothers, a New York-based publishing firm that led the way in printing technologies for children for nearly a century. Featured here is a copy of Noah’s Ark ABC, which belonged to McLoughlin Bros., Inc.’s vice president, Charles E. Miller. This “Indestructible” copy (printed at the head of the front cover) features a half-cloth binding with printed boards; the back edge of the boards are covered with cloth to form the spine, giving it added protection. Not forfeiting any of the color-printing advancements of the day, Noah’s Ark ABC boasts gorgeous chromolithographed illustrations. The story is one that invites the youngest of audiences—the biblical tale of Noah, the flood, and the pairs of animals was, and continues to be, a perennial popular first-book for infants—and would have drawn many interested young hands to explore this indestructible copy printed in 1884. (The Society holds publisher’s catalogs of the McLoughlin firm, most of which have been digitized (such as this 1897 example), and are useful for those interested in full title lists.)

So what started out as a derivative of a chapbook grew up—and as more publishers created their own titles or series, they brought in more illustrators and introduced a set price and standard size, which eventually led to increased competition. And using various means—be it linen, blended cloth, covered boards, or some combination—the evolution of these indestructible books made it possible for hands and mouths, great and small to use books. Even those—like Goldilocks—with a more discriminating palate.

The Acquisitions Table: Quill Pens

Box with Nine Congress Quill Pens. New York: Emanuel De Young, ca. 1850.

515145_0003This box of goose quill pens was purchased jointly by the manuscript curator, who wanted to add the pens to our holdings of writing implements, and the graphic arts curator, who wanted the box and label for the ephemera collection. De Young produced quill pens between 1846 and 1854 and continued to sell them into the 1890s. Orders for “Congress” quill pens, his brand name, appear in many state documents from the 1880s and 1890s (including orders from courthouses and legislatures in Illinois, Michigan, and Minnesota), so inexpensive quills were still in demand at the end of the century. The December 1891 issue of American Stationer reported, “There was a time some years ago when quill pens and unmade quills were standard articles and found ready sale from E. De Young, who is still in business and is still shoving the quill but not to the extent of years ago…”

Now In Print from the AAS Community

Every quarter at AAS we release a list of recent publications by those who have researched at serverthe library as fellows, members, or readers. To see this list, as well as a list of works published from 2000-2014, please visit our recent scholarship page on the AAS website. If your book, article, or other achievement is not included, just let us know if you’d like to see it there!


Brennan, Denis. The Making of an Abolitionist: William Lloyd Garrison’s Path to Publishing The Liberator. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 2014.

Dobson, Joanne. The Kashmiri Shawl. 2014. (Baron Fellow, 2004-2005)

Gaskill, Malcolm. Between Two Worlds: How the English Became Americans. New York: Basic Books, 2014.

Glynn, Tom. Reading Publics: New York City’s Public Libraries, 1754-1911. New York: Fordham University Press, 2015.

Harvey, Sean P. Native Tongues: Colonialism and Race from Encounter to the Reservation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015. (AAS-NEH Fellow, 2010-2011)

Holzer, Harold. Lincoln and the Power of the Press: The War for Public Opinion. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014. (AAS member)

Iarocci, Luoisa. The Urban Department Store in America, 1850-1930. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014.

Johnston, Patricia and Caroline Frank, eds. Global Trade and Visual Arts in Federal New England. Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2014. (Johnston: Last Fellow, 2007-2008; Frank: CHAViC Fellow, 2013-2014)

Lomazow, Steven. The Great American Magazine: Adventures in History. Selections from the Steven Lomazow Collection of American Periodicals. New Jersey, 2014. (AAS member)

Plane, Ann Marie. Dreams and the Invisible World in Colonial New England: Indians, Colonists, and the Seventeenth Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Raven, James. Publishing Business in Eighteenth-Century England. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2014. (Peterson Fellow, 1986-1987; Peterson Fellow, 1994-1995; AAS member)

Tomlin, T.J. A Divinity for All Persuasions: Almanacs and Early American Religious Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. (Botein Fellow, 2010-2011)


Christ, Birte. “Capital Punishment and the Citizen-Subject.” American Literary History 27.1 (2014): 114-127. (Ebeling Fellow, 2012-2013)

Jortner, Adam. “Without Demons: Witchcraft and Witch Trials in the Colonial Chesapeake.” In Order and Civility in the Early Modern Chesapeake, edited by Debra Meyers and Melanie Perreault. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014. (AAS-ASECS Fellow, 2014-2015)

Lopenzina, Drew. “Le Jeune Dreams of Moose: Altered States among the Montagnais in the Jesuit Relations of 1634. Early American Studies 13.1 (2015): 3-37. (Peterson Fellow, 2014-2015)

Verplanck, Anne. “Making History: Antiquarian Culture in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 138.4 (2014): 395-424. (CHAViC Fellow, 2011-2012)

Verplanck, Anne. “‘They Carry Their Religion…Into Every Act of Their Public and Private Lives': Quaker Consumption of Early Photographic Images in Philadelphia, 1839-1860.” Early American Studies 13.1 (2015): 237-278. (CHAViC Fellow, 2011-2012)

Wolfe, S.J., Kathleen M. Haley, and Caroline W. Stoffel. “EMINA (Egyptian Mummies in North America): A Database for Mummy Studies.” Yearbook of Mummy Studies 2 (2014): 117-124. (AAS staff)

Wolfe, S.J. “Padihershef and Me.” In Inspired by My Museum. Birmingham, England: Sampad, 2014. (AAS staff)


The Spread of U.S. Slavery, 1790-1860.” Online exhibit by Lincoln Mullen. (Peterson Fellow, 2013-2014)

EMINA—Egyptian Mummies in North America.” Online database launched April 19, 2014, by S.J. Wolfe. (AAS staff)


Shelby M. Balik received the Phi Alpha Theta Best First Book Award (awarded in September 2014) for her book Rally the Scattered Believers: Northern New England’s Religious Geography. (Peterson Fellow, 2003-2004)

David Brion Davis’s The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Emancipation was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for general nonfiction. (AAS member)

Ellen Gruber Garvey received several awards for her book Writing with Scissors: American Scrapbooks from the Civil War to the Harlem Renaissance: The Institute for Humanities Research’s Transdisciplinary Book Award; The Society of American Archivists’ Waldo Gifford Leland Award;  the year’s only Highly Commended Award of the SHARP DeLong Book History Book Prize; and sole honorable mention from the EBSCOhost/Research Society for American Periodicals (RSAP) Book Prize. (Peterson Fellow, 2008-2009)

Ezra Greenspan’s William Wells Brown: An African American Life was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for biography. (Mellon Distinguished Scholar in Residence, 2009-2010; AAS member)

Omeka Mania at AAS

We at AAS have figured out one way to beat the winter blues: Omeka! Thanks to the generosity of Jay Last (member since 1987), we held a two-day training session for our staff to learn this content management system for online exhibitions of special collections. Omeka is not archival software, but it was developed at the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media to work extremely well with the information systems in place at special collections libraries. Its stated goal is to “create complex narratives and share rich collections,” and we have nothing but rich collections that have complex stories to tell.

thomasballadsWe recently used Omeka for our Isaiah Thomas Broadside Ballads project: Verses in Vogue with the Vulgar, and found that many of its features work very well with our General Catalog and with our digital images archive, GIGI. Because all of the Thomas broadsides were already cataloged, we exported the Machine-Readable Catalog (MARC) records and then imported them into Omeka. We could therefore repurpose the data in our catalog into our exhibitions, rather than key in all the information anew. We were also able to make use of both the smaller images we derive from GIGI and to point our users to the high-resolution images we store in GIGI. As we worked through this project, we increasingly saw how Omeka-ready our materials are. We realized that virtual exhibitions are a wonderful way to open up our collections and to thereby fulfill, in an innovative way, part of the Society’s mission: “to make widely accessible the early historical record of our nation.” We therefore invited Omeka developer extraordinaire Ken Albers, who developed the Thomas Broadsides project for us, to come visit us in the tundra that is Worcester in February. Fortunately for us, single digit temperatures and double-digit measurements of snow did not deter Ken, and he came north to dazzle us for two days with all things Omeka.

Ken spent the first day with about 25 staff members, introducing us to Omeka and how we can use it to encourage the public to start interacting with our collections online as we guide them through virtual exhibitions. As Ken walked us through the many ways of configuring Omeka for various uses, he showed us inspiring examples of how experts such as himself have used Omeka to make customized sites, such as Martha Washington: A Life, and also sites made by students who have made impressive use of Omeka’s basic features, such as Wearing Gay History: A Digital Archive of Historical LGBT T-Shirts. Ken encouraged those of us who will be designing sites to let the materials we are exhibiting guide both the organization and the look of our pages.



Omeka_0001On day two of our training, Ken ran an Omeka lab for the ten of us who are creating sites. These sites will launch over the next year and include a range of items in our collections: Hawaiiana, the Louis Prang collection, and James Fenimore Cooper, just to name a few. Ken walked us through importing our data, how to display the data, installing plug-ins, choosing our themes, and customizing our themes. As we spent the day with our heads in our computers, exchanging ideas and asking questions, the excitement for this tool, which will enable us to share the collections we love so much, was palpable. We look forward to sharing what we have learned in the form of these exciting virtual exhibitions.

Please stay-tuned for the many exciting Omeka sites that will be housed on the “Digital AAS” section of our website.

The Acquisitions Table: A Present for the Young

A Present for the Young. New York: D. Waugh and T. Mason for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1833.

515458_0001This wonderfully detailed hand-colored wood engraving is the frontispiece to A Present for the Young and illustrates the role of the family as the epicenter of literacy and civilization. Note the family gathered around the hearthside table; the painting on the wall, and the piano (with sheet music) neatly tucked into the corner. Literacy underlies the family’s activities: the father sits at the table over what appears to be a pamphlet (perhaps a periodical), and is engaged in speaking to his older daughter on the left; likewise, the mother is engaged in speaking to two children about a book in her hand, while another child is seated near the fireside engrossed in her own book. The youngest child excitedly points to the father’s reading, emphasizing the importance of reading, be it aloud or to oneself, in family life.

Meet AAS Fellow Melanie Kiechle


Melanie Kiechle is assistant professor of history at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and is presently an American Antiquarian Society-National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow at the Society. Her current project is entitled “Smell Detectives: An Olfactory History of Nineteenth-Century America” and she recently sat down with us to discuss her work and research at AAS.


Past is Present: Can you describe your current project for us?

Melanie Kiechle: I’m working on a book manuscript that I’m currently calling “Smell Detectives: An Olfactory History of Urban America, 1840-1900.”  The book is about smells and smelling in the nineteenth-century, during the period when industries and cities were rapidly expanding.  It’s part environmental history, explaining how these expansions changed the air and the physical environment; part urban and public health history, exploring the rise of institutionalized public health around fears of miasmas and bad smells; and part history of science, because chemists were deeply involved in creating, identifying, and reducing stenches. But mostly I’m thinking of this project as a cultural history of fresh air and foul odors.  I’m working on recovering both how the smells of cities changed, and how people’s perceptions of odors as good or bad, as healthful or dangerous, were changing at the same time.  At its most basic level, my book will be about what it was like to live in these cities while they changed so dramatically, and how people reckoned with changes that they thought were positive, such as an expanding economy and more jobs, but simultaneously negative because they created stenches and threatened health.


Past is Present: What historians do you admire? What scholars inspired you to go into this work?

Melanie: It’s ever-changing, because when I started the project, I didn’t know it was going to be environmental. I was just interested in smell and sensory history. Some of the things I first read that really inspired me are great books about smell. For my current project, Alain Corbin, David Barnes, and Mark M. Smith definitely.  So, Alain Corbin, who’s a French historian, has a book called The Foul and the Fragrant, which is the classic work if you want to think about the history of smell. I don’t agree with all of it, but it was a brilliant starting point. He’s looking at the development of the bourgeoisie, so as you develop personal space, you notice that smell more because it infringes on your personal space. But he also does history of science and explains how people understood air within that period. David Barnes writes about the great stink of Paris, and picks up where Corbin left off.  So that was a starting point, but there are lots of historians who have done great work. Mark M. Smith is an American historian who works on the history of the senses, and he’s been pushing people to think about the senses. When I first got started I was really inspired by his work and all the possibilities it opened up. As a historian in general, I’m inspired by those who tell good stories about the past, including (but not limited to!) William Cronon, Richard White, Jill Lepore, John Demos, James Goodman, Natalie Zemon Davis, James Cook, Ann Fabian, Jackson Lears.  I could probably go on, but I’ll stop there.


Past is Present: I’m particularly wondering why you say fresh air is a right.

Melanie: Oh, I say that it’s a right because that’s how nineteenth-century Americans described it.  They actually talk about pure air as an “inherent right,” which is the same phrase that people used to talk about liberty. So it seems to me like that’s pretty loaded language…Today we talk about environmental rights and whether the environment has any rights.  I think it’s a striking and early use of that kind of idea. The place where this phrase comes up most is in legal proceedings in nuisance cases when people fight against the industries that produced bad smells.  Lawyers and plaintiffs claim that they have an inherent right to breathe fresh air or pure air. But the idea of a right to air also comes up in journalism.  In newspapers and magazines I’ve read about “the rights of the nose” which is the idea that people shouldn’t have to breathe things that smell bad.


Past is Present: What does it mean to be an AAS fellow? What would be your ideal find?

Melanie: Right now I would really like to find a disagreement about whether you can have your windows opened or closed in the city, which is a very particular thing for a chapter I’m writing. But the ideal thing for me to find would be someone describing what it’s like to breathe fresh air and what it’s like to breathe city air. How did that feel? That would be a revelatory document that would give us a much deeper sense of what it was like to live in these places and to want fresh air but to always have air that smells like something no matter what that smell was.

Read the whole interview here!

The Acquisitions Table: Norma, A Serio-Comic Burlesque

Crouch, F[rederick] Nicholls. Norma. A Serio-Comic Burlesque, Written Expressly for Sanford’s Opera House. [Philadelphia?, 1856].

512965_0001The 10 opera or song libretti in Italian and English bound together in this sammelband were all lacking or defective in AAS collections. Most are for serious Italian operas, but also included is a previously unlocated burlesque of Vincenzo Bellini’s opera Norma, re-imagined as a Know-Nothing drama. The burlesque has the same characters as the original opera, except that the characters’ names are latinized. A few lines from the opening procession and chorus sets the tone: “Defend us from this secret foe! / ‘The Know Nothings’ here! are all the go; / To save our country strike the blow, / and send them to Old Nick!” (p.3). Crouch’s Norma, a Serio-Comic Burlesque is the sole Philadelphia imprint in the sammelband, except for three small tipped-in Philadelphia theatrical playbills from the American Academy of Music (including one for Bellini’s Norma). These Philadelphia theatre connections associate this libretti collection with William D. Gemmill (1832–1906), the manager of the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia, whose bookplate is affixed to the front endpaper.

A Saucy Valentine

Esther Howland valentines (in business 1848-1881)This week, AAS was fortunate to receive a hand-made, circa 1830, valentine as a donation.  Society member George K. Fox of California presented the valentine to AAS President Ellen Dunlap at an event at the San Francisco Book Club celebrating the Society’s receipt of the National Humanities Medal.

The Society has a large and representative collection of over 3,000 American printed and manuscript valentines. We have excellent holdings of lacy, colorful, heart-bedecked cards made by Worcester-resident Esther Howland  (at right and you can see more here), lots of comic or vinegar valentines designed for your “frenemies,” and plenty of printed material related to Valentine’s Day, including party invitations, manuals for assistance in writing love messages, and periodicals with articles about the customs and traditions popular in the nineteenth century.

So when the California gift was presented and the staff on the West coast excitedly texted the news, we wondered how anything could possibly improve our already great holdings?  Well, this gift does!  The valentine is fantastic and is also well-documented.  The soft, embossed lace 520872_Valentine_0002paper features a lovely watercolor image of two young men and a lady holding some flowers, and four stanzas of original poetry written in the surrounding borders.  The valentine was likely made by Elinor Elizabeth Delafield, the wife of Dr. Edward Delafield, around 1830 when she and the two men depicted were all in their late thirties.  The two young men in the image are her brothers-in-law, the identical twins Henry and William Delafield, born in 1792.  Both brothers served in the War of 1812 and later worked as bankers and merchants in New York, where Elinor and Edward also lived.  They were notorious bachelors and, according to the family history, were inseparable.  The first stanza of the poem states: “Two brisk bachelors lived in a house, / Quiet and cozy and snug as a mouse. The girls for years had wasted their arts / Trying to storm these two tough hearts.”  The poem chides the twins for being fickle with love, casting aside one lady after another, and also scoffs at unnamed young ladies and their attempts to coerce the twins into wedlock.  The poem has a very breezy and amusing rhythm that highlights the mischief for which the twins were known—the brothers would often surreptitiously change partners during balls and no one would notice, a fact the poem includes, stating: “None could tell the one from the other / For one was wicked and saucy the other.”  The woman in the valentine holds a tri-color pansy and a rose, both of which are still associated with Valentine’s Day—the rose for love and the pansy (or heart’s ease) for contentment.

520872_Valentine_0001The valentine was found in a scrapbook kept by Susan Delafield Parrish (or Parish), a younger sister to the twins, and is inscribed on the back “Henry and Wm. Delafield / Valentine by Mrs. Dr. Delafield” (see right).  Possibly, the twins presented it to Susan after Elinor’s death in 1834 and Susan put it in the family scrapbook.  William never married, and died at age 62 in 1853.  Henry married at age 73 and died ten years later, in 1875.  The family genealogist recalled that the “boys” as they were called for their entire lives had “many family and personal friends, an excellent reputation, the good will of all, and plenty of determination.”  We are so pleased to have their valentine, made by an obviously doting sister-in-law, preserved at AAS.

You calling me yellow?

The Silver WorldLet’s say you are the publisher of a newspaper in a small mining town in Colorado and you run out of the regular paper you use to print your publication.  What do you do?  In the case of The Silver World published in Lake City, Colorado, you find an alternative source of paper.

Recently AAS acquired a copy of this paper dated May 4, 1886.  What immediately catches the eye is the yellow paper.  Due to a shortage of regular paper, this issue was printed on yellow wrapping paper.  As you can see, it served its purpose well.   The paper is thinner than normal, but it took ink well and produced a serviceable issue.

The Silver World began in 1875 as the first newspaper of Lake City.  At first it was printed on a Washington-style hand press.   In 1877 they obtained what is said to be the first power press west of the Continental Divide (it weighed 3 tons), brought in by road as no railroad had yet reached Lake City.  There are conflicting stories about when the paper ended, but it ceased in either 1888 or 1889.

Lake City still exists, despite a declining population since 1900.  Today 375 people live in the town, which also includes 200 historic buildings.

The Acquisitions Table: Belle of Baltimore

Belle of Baltimore. T.W. Strong, [between 1843 and 1866]

511932_0001A minstrel songster known in only two other copies (and those are either a variant or defective copy). This copy of Belle of Baltimore is remarkable for its intact publisher’s green wrappers and illustrations. The seven woodcuts, all but one depicting African Americans, are located on the cover, frontispiece, title vignette, and four more are scattered throughout the text. Song titles include: “Virginia Juba,” “Jim Crack Corn! I Don’t Care,” “Jim Crow’s Ramble.” Performers referenced include: the Sable Brothers, Charles White, Dan Emmit, T.D. Rice, Wm Laconta.

Newly Acquired Board Game Depicts Football Before the Super Bowl

IMG_2479While trolling for children’s books and games at the Papermania fair held several weeks ago in the basement of the Hartford Civic Center (you could hear the marching band playing for the UConn men’s basketball game upstairs), I made the happy discovery of this aptly titled Parlor Foot-ball Game, issued by picture book and game publisher McLoughlin Brothers in 1891.  Its magnificently chromolithographed cover is nothing short of arresting: healthy, attractive (and yes, look-alike) young men competing for control of a ball that resembles more of a soccer ball or basketball than a modern elliptical football.  No dirt, grass stains, or blood sully this wholesome game.  If anything, the players appear to be in that ambiguous space between boys and men: they are all clean-shaven and wear the same pageboy haircuts.  Their protective gear is minimal—although some wear quilted knickers and several players have buckled shin pads.


It is the team jerseys that reveal more about the players and place of football in American culture during the Gilded Age.  Half of them wear the “Y” of the Yale University Bulldogs, while the other half sport the orange and black horizontally striped jerseys of the Princeton University Tigers, reflecting the sport’s popularity on two exclusive college campuses.  In 1891, the sport of college football was barely more than two decades old, and both Yale and Princeton had the earliest teams.  Yale first competed in 1872, and by 1891 the team was coached by Walter Camp, who is now known as the Father of Football for his innovative work in transforming the game from English rugby to the snap and tackle dominated plays along the line of scrimmage that became characteristic of American football.  Princeton and its nearby competitor Rutgers are creIMG_2482dited with having the oldest football teams in the world, both established in 1869.  Princeton dominated the game, winning some 22 of the 40 national titles played between 1872 and 1900.

Also fascinating is the carefully composed pastoral background for this box top image.  Green leafy trees border the field, providing shade for an early fall day free from wind, rain, or snow.  Even the spectators seem to be neatly arranged between the covered grandstand on the left, the bleachers in the middle, and the standing spectators on the far right, who seem to be well-dressed college men and their girlfriends.  It is as though the box image is giving us visual instructions for the performance of the game as a social event.

IMG_2478Like many late nineteenth-century games, the actual board game is governed by rules that seem ponderous to the modern eye.  The action is confined to a rectangular board marked by yards and goal spaces/goal lines on either side.  The game is limited to two players who take turns spinning in order to advance the ball piece toward the opponent’s goal line and maneuver around the blocking of four player pieces per team.  Five points are awarded for getting the ball piece over the central goal space, or three points for getting over the goal line on either side of the goal space.  According to the instructions, the game can be played for 12 or any number of points predetermined by the players, reflecting the fluidity of both the McLoughlin game, and this brave new sport played by college men.